tiistai 26. kesäkuuta 2018

Pilot, Kyösti Karhila

Kyösti Karhila
Nickname(s) Kössi

Kyösti Karhila (May 2, 1921 – September 16, 2009) was a Finnish World War II fighter ace with 32¼ victories. He was born in Rauma, Finland. He began flying in Lentolaivue 32 and flew later in LeLv 30, LeLv 32, LeLv 34 and LeLv 24. He scored 13¼ of his victories with P-36 Hawks and 19 with Bf 109s.

                Kuvahaun tulos haulle karhila curtiss 75 hawk cu-560

                Henkilön Jarkko Lehti kuva.
After the war broke out on the 30 November 1939, Karhila was drafted and posted to Kauhava Air Base for training. On coompletion of training he was then posted to LeLv 24 at Siikakangas, equipped with the Fokker D.XXI. He was then posted to LeLv 30 on 20 June 1941. In mid July the unit was re-equipped with the Curtiss P-36 Hawk. Karhila's first air combat was on 31 July 1941, against two Soviet Air Force I-153's.

                Henkilön Jarkko Lehti kuva.

Karhila transferred to LeLv 34 based at Utti in March 1943, flying the Bf 109G-2. In March 1944 his flight was posted piecemeal into LeLv 30 at Malmi to defend Helsinki, although after the Soviet ground offensive commenced in June 1944 the flight returned to LeLv 34.

After his air force career he flew airliners for Finnair, Aero O/Y and Spearair. He gathered 556 flying hours during the war (in 304 combat sorties) and 24,000 after the war. He died in Helsinki at the age of 88 as the last of the Finnish fighter aces. F18 Hornet of the Finnish Air Force performed a flypast over the city during the ceremony.

                 Henkilön Jarkko Lehti kuva.
                             Karhila in the middle

The picture is taken in the midst of fierce battles, June 1944 in the middle to Soviet great attack. Taking time, it's a pretty relaxed mood

According to the latest archive studies, air gains have been strengthened for Karhila for a total of 43 1/4 (This info's Carl-Fredrik Geust's studies on Russian artifacts).

Aerial victories
Date                 Own aircraf     Place      Enemy aircraft
August 1, 1941     CU-502 Jääski        ⅓ balloon
August 10, 1941     CU-567 Kirvu        ½ Polikarpov I-16
August 13, 1941     CU-561 Kirvu        ½ Polikarpov I-153
August 18, 1941     CU-570 Sintola        1 Polikarpov I-153
September 3, 1941    CU-566 Kuokkala 1 Polikarpov I-153
September 17, 1941  CU-552 Siestarjoki 1 MiG-3
September 19, 1941  CU-560 Ohalatva          1 MiG-1
June 15, 1942             CU-560 Mergino          1 Yak-1
June 28, 1942             CU-560 Vitele           ½ Pe-2
July 5, 1942             CU-560 Sampotuksa    1 Polikarpov I-16
August 21, 1942     CU-560 Lyugovitcha    1 Polikarpov I-16bis
September 29, 1942  CU-571 Saarimäki     ½ Pe-2
November 9, 1942     CU-571 Mulberskoye     ½ MiG-1
November 9, 1942     CU-571 Ylä-Sotkusha      ¼ Pe-2
February 9, 1943     CU-560 Saarentaka       1 Pe-2
February 11, 1943      CU-560 Savijärvi               ½ LaGG-3
February 11, 1943     CU-560 Novinka                1 LaGG-3
February 11, 1943     CU-560 Malkjärvi           1 U-2
May 4, 1943             MT-214 Ino                       2 LaGG-3
May 21, 1943             MT-224 Lavansaari        1 La-5
July 19, 1943             MT-224 Pöytsaari        1 Pe-2
August 20, 1943     MT-229 Seiskari                1 La-5
May 28, 1944             MT-403 Kuusalu, Estonia 1 Pe-2
June 21, 1944             MT-405 Tienhaara         1 IL-2
June 30, 1944             MT-436 Perojoki                 1 Yak-9
July 1, 1944             MT-461 Teikarsaari           1 IL-2
July 3, 1944             MT-461 Portinhoikka           1 IL-2
July 4, 1944             MT-460 Vatnouri                   1 P-51
July 5, 1944             MT-461 Tuppuransaari 1 Yak-9
July 7, 1944             MT-461 Vatnouri                  1 P-51
July 9, 1944             MT-461 Kylä-Paakkola 1 IL-2
July 10, 1944             MT-461 Terhonjärvi          1 La-5
July 10, 1944             MT-461 Uusikylä                   1 Yak-9
July 11, 1944             MT-461 Hirvisaari           1 La-5
July 16, 1944             MT-460 Ritasaari                  1 Yak-9
July 18, 1944             MT-460 Malkola                  1 La-5
July 18, 1944             MT-460 Kylä-Paakkola 1 La-5

CU = P-36 Hawk (Curtiss 75, bought from Germany)    
MT = Bf 109         (Messerchmitt 109 G-2 serie 200 nrs / and G-6 serie 400 nrs)

maanantai 25. kesäkuuta 2018

Luftwaffe rescue buoy

The interior of a Luftwaffe rescue buoy
The Luftwaffe's rescue buoy (Rettungsboje) was designed to provide shelter for the pilots or crew of aircraft shot down or forced to make an emergency landing over water.
                          A Luftwaffe rescue buoy at sea
The buoys were developed for flyers of the Luftwaffe brought down while operating over the English Channel, and were constructed under the direction of the German Ministry of Air Navigation in 1940 at the suggestion of Generaloberst Ernst Udet, Director-General of Equipment for the Luftwaffe.

The initial buoys were a simple design, 2m high, and 1m x 5m in size, offering little in the form of shelter. A flag pole allowed a flag or lamp to be hoisted, supplies included a basic medical kit, iron rations, water, life jackets and ropes.:91

A new delux Buoy was designed and 50 were anchored in the English Channel during 1940.:93

                          The interior of a Luftwaffe rescue buoy

Design of improved buoy
The buoys were of square or hexagonal construction and had a floor space of about 43 square feet with an 8-foot cabin rising above the float. On the upper deck of this cabin, there was an oval turret 6 feet high with a signal mast carrying a wireless antenna. Tube railings to which the distressed flyers could cling ran along the outer circumference below and above the water line. A ladder led up to the turret, in which there was a door opening into the cabin below.

A 320-foot red and yellow striped rope anchored the buoy at a fixed location, but allowed a limited drift, thereby indicating the direction of the current to aircraft in distress. The buoy was painted light yellow above the water line, and red crosses against white oval backgrounds were painted on each side of the turret.:91

                Kuvahaun tulos haulle luftwaffe sea rescue float
The base had four teaspooned bunks, warm clothes and footwear, sideburns, medicines, 25 l of fresh water, iron doses for four men for several days. Warm food could be made with a digester that worked with alcohol jar capsules. In addition, the ferry had an emergency radio transmitter, a light gun with lightning strikes, and signaling devices to indicate that the ferry was rescued. There was a red flag in the tower of the day, red and white at night. The raft accessories also included patching tools and hand pump for leakage.

As war progressed, the air carriers of both sides were rescued on these rafts. The German rescue boats (Flugsicherungsboote) took the opportunity to visit the lifeboats to check their flight crew.
The cabin accommodated four persons comfortably for several days, and in an emergency, the crews of several aircraft could be taken care of. It was electrically lit by storage batteries, but in case of a breakdown kerosene lamps or other lighting devices were provided. There were two double-deck beds and adequate cupboard space for first-aid equipment, dry clothing and shoes, emergency rations, and a water supply. Hot food could be prepared on an alcohol stove. Cognac to relieve chill and cigarettes to quiet the nerves were also provided. Games, stationery, playing cards, etc. afforded diversion until rescue was effected. Depleted supplies were always immediately replaced upon the arrival of the rescue ship. A tubular lifeboat was available for transferring the downed aviators from the buoy to the ship.

                         Kuvahaun tulos haulle luftwaffe sea rescue lfoat

Signalling was accomplished by hoisting a black anchor ball and a yellow and red striped flag on the mast during the day. At night, red and white lights in the turret indicated that rescued men were on board. A white anchor light on the mast was visible for 3,000 feet or more. SOS signals giving the location of the buoy were automatically sent out by an emergency wireless transmitter. Signal pistols with red and white lights, white-light parachute flares, or a smoke, distress-signalling apparatus completed the signalling equipment. Other equipment included plugs to stop up bullet holes in the walls of the cabin and a pump for the expulsion of seepage.
Being in fixed locations, they could be checked one or twice a day and if occupied a seaplane or Flugsicherungboot (high speed launch), could be summoned.:92

They saved many airmen that ships or seaplanes might have been too late to rescue.:93

Defence usage
A rescue buoy was incorporated into the harbour boom at Braye Harbour in German occupied Alderney, reputedly manned by three men armed with a machine gun.:95

In Film
Rettungsboje have appeared in films from the World War II period: We dive at dawn (1943) and One of our aircraft is missing (1942).

sunnuntai 20. toukokuuta 2018

Hawker Tornado

The Hawker Tornado was a British single-seat fighter aircraft design of World War II for the Royal Air Force as a replacement for the Hawker Hurricane. The planned production of Tornados was cancelled after the engine it was designed to use, the Rolls-Royce Vulture, proved unreliable in service. A parallel airframe with the Napier Sabre continued into production as the Hawker Typhoon.

Shortly after the Hawker Hurricane entered service, Hawker began work on its eventual successor. Two alternative projects were undertaken: the Type N (for Napier), with a Napier Sabre engine, and the Type R (for Rolls-Royce), equipped with a Rolls-Royce Vulture powerplant. Hawker presented an early draft of their ideas to the Air Ministry who advised them that a specification was in the offing for such a fighter. 
                 Hawker Tornado (with Rolls-Royce Vulture engine).jpg
                               Hawker Tornado (P5224)

                Kuvahaun tulos haulle Hawker Tornado
                                Hawker Tornado N (HG641)

                 Kuvahaun tulos haulle Hawker Tornado

The specification was released by the Ministry as Specification F.18/37 after further prompting from Hawker. the specification called for a single-seat fighter armed with twelve 7.7 mm machine guns, a maximum speed of 644 km/h at 4,600 m and a service ceiling of 10,700 m were required. Two prototypes of both the Type N and R were ordered on 3 March 1938.

Both prototypes were very similar to the Hurricane in general appearance, and shared some of its construction techniques. The front fuselage used the same swaged and bolted duralumin tube structure, which had been developed by Sydney Camm and Fred Sigrist in 1925. The new design featured automobile-like side-opening doors for entry, and used a large 12 m wing that was much thicker in cross-section than those on aircraft like the Spitfire. The rear fuselage, from behind the cockpit, differed from that of the Hurricane in that it was a duralumin, semi-monocoque, flush-riveted structure. 

The all-metal wings incorporated the legs and wheel-bays of the wide-track, inward-retracting main undercarriage. The two models were also very similar to each other; the R plane had a rounder nose profile and a ventral radiator, whereas the N had a flatter deck and a chin-mounted radiator. The fuselage of the Tornado ahead of the wings was 30 cm longer than that of the Typhoon, the wings were fitted 76 mm lower on the fuselage, and the radiator was located beneath the fuselage. The X-24 cylinder configuration of the Vulture required two sets of ejector exhaust stacks on each side of the cowling, and that the engine was mounted further forward than the Sabre in order to clear the front wing spar.
                Kuvahaun tulos haulle Hawker Tornado
General characteristics
Crew: One, pilot
Length: 10.01 m
Wingspan: 12.78 m
Height: 4.47 m
Wing area: 26.3 m²
Empty weight: 3,800 kg
Useful load: 1,039 kg
Loaded weight: 4,318 kg for P5219
Max. takeoff weight: 4,839 kg
Fuel capacity: 636 Litres
Powerplant: 1 × Rolls-Royce Vulture II or X-24 piston engine, 1,760 hp 1,312 kw Vulture II, Vulture V: 1,980 hp 1,476 kw
Propellers: 3 or 4 bladed propeller
Propeller diameter: 338 cm, Vulture: 306cm
Maximum speed: 641 km/h for Vulture V at 7,102 m.
Service ceiling: 10,640 m
Wing loading: max takeoff: 184.81 kg/m²
Power/mass: max takeoff 3.58 kg/Kw
Time to height: 7.2 min to 6,100 m
Guns: Provision for 12 × 7.7 mm Browning machine guns (1st prototype P5219) 
or 4 × 20 mm Hispano cannon. (2nd and Centaurus prototypes P5224, HG641).

                Kuvahaun tulos haulle Hawker Tornado

                Kuvahaun tulos haulle Hawker Tornado

                Kuvahaun tulos haulle Hawker Tornado
On 6 October 1939, the first prototype (P5219) was flown by P.G. Lucas, having first been moved from Kingston to Langley for completion. Further flight trials revealed airflow problems around the radiator, which was subsequently relocated to a chin position. Later changes included increased rudder area, and the upgrading of the powerplant to the Vulture Mark V engine. Hawker production lines focused on the Hurricane, with the result that completion of the second prototype (P5224) was significantly delayed. It featured the chin radiator, additional window panels in the fairing behind the cockpit, and the 12 x 7,7 mm machine guns were replaced by four 20 mm Hispano cannon. It was first flown on 5 December 1940, and was powered by a Vulture II, although as in the case of the first prototype, a Vulture V was later installed.

In order to avoid upsetting the Hurricane lines, production was sub-contracted to Avro (another company in the Hawker group) in Manchester and Cunliffe-Owen Aircraft in Eastleigh, with orders for 1,760 and 200 respectively being placed in 1939. However, only one of these aircraft, from Avro, was ever built and flown, this being R7936. Shortly after its first flight at Woodford, on 29 August 1941, the Vulture programme was abandoned, followed closely by the cancellation of the Tornado order. At that time four aircraft were at various stages of production at the Avro plant at Yeadon, West Yorkshire.

The Vulture was effectively cancelled by Rolls-Royce in July 1941, partly due to the problems experienced in its use on the Avro Manchester, but mostly to free up resources for Merlin development and production. The Rolls-Royce Merlin was also starting to deliver the same power levels. However, the Vulture engine installation in the Tornado was relatively trouble free and the aircraft itself had fewer problems in flight than its Sabre-engined counterpart. The third prototype (HG641), the only other Tornado to fly, was flown on 23 October 1941, powered by a Bristol Centaurus CE.4S sleeve valve radial engine. This Tornado was built from two incomplete production airframes (R7937 and R7938), was a testbed for a number of Centaurus engine/propeller combinations and was the progenitor of the Hawker Tempest II.