tiistai 13. syyskuuta 2016

Kawasaki Ki-32

The Kawasaki Ki-32 (九八式軽爆撃機 Kyuhachi-shiki keibakugekiki?) was a Japanese light bomber aircraft of World War II. It was a single-engine, two-seat, mid-wing, cantilever monoplane with a fixed tailwheel undercarriage. An internal bomb bay accommodated a 300 kg offensive load, supplemented by 150 kg of bombs on external racks. During the war, it was known by the Allies by the name Mary.
The Ki-32 was developed in response to a May 1936 Imperial Japanese Army specification to replace the Kawasaki Ki-3 light bomber with a completely indigenously designed and built aircraft. Mitsubishi and Kawasaki were requested to build two prototypes each by December 1936. The specification called for a top speed of 400 km/h at 3,000 m, normal operating altitude from 2,000–4,000 m, the ability to climb to 3,000 m within 8 minutes and an engine to be selected from the 825 hp Mitsubishi Ha-6 radial, 850 hp (630 kW) Nakajima Ha-5 radial, or 850 hp Kawasaki Ha-9-IIb liquid-cooled inline engines, a normal bomb load of 300 kg and a maximum of 450 kg, one forward-firing machine gun and one flexible rearward-firing machine gun, the ability to perform 60-degree dives for dive bombing, and a loaded weight less than 3,300 kg.
                   Kuvahaun tulos haulle Kawasaki Ki-32
The first Kawasaki prototype flew in March 1937, seven more prototypes were produced. Being very similar in layout and performance, main difference between the Kawasaki Ki-32 and its Mitsubishi Ki-30 rival was in the choice of an engine. The Mitsubishi design used the Nakajima Ha-5 14-cylinder air-cooled radial engine, whereas Kawasaki opted for their own Kawasaki Ha-9-II inline V12 engine.

Problems were encountered with the Kawasaki design, particularly with engine cooling, and the Mitsubishi Ki-30 received the production order. In spite of this, the pressing need for more aircraft in the Second Sino-Japanese War, which had started at full scale in July 1937, resulted in the Ki-32's entry into production as well, 12 months behind its rival. Ironically, the number of Ki-32s built was much higher than that of the successful Ki-30.

The Ki-32 entered production in 1938, designated Army Type 98 Single-engine Light Bomber, Kawasaki manufactured 854 Ki-32s before production ceased in May 1940.

The Ki-32 saw extensive war service in the Second Sino-Japanese War, equipping the 3rd, 6th, 10th, 35th, 45th, 65th and 75th Sentai. It also saw combat during the Battle of Nomonhan against the Soviet Union in 1938-1939. Its last combat action was bombing Commonwealth forces during the Japanese Invasion of Hong Kong.

Ki-32s during World War II were also supplied to the Manchukuo Air Force to replace their obsolescent Kawasaki Type 88/KDA-2 light bombers; they were the main bomber of that service through the conflict.

After their withdrawal from front-line service in 1942 the Ki-32s were used in a training role.

General characteristics
Crew: 2
Length: 11.65 m 
Wingspan: 15.0 m 
Height: 2.90m 
Wing area: 34.00 m² 
Empty weight: 1,066 kg 
Max takeoff weight: 3,760 kg
Powerplant: 1× Kawasaki Ha-9-IIb liquid-cooled inline V12 engine, 634 kW (850 hp)
Maximum speed: 423 km/h at (3,940 m) 
Cruise speed: 300 km/h 
Range: 1,965 km 
Service ceiling: 8,920 m
Rate of climb: 7.6 m/s 
Wing loading: 104.1 kg/m² 
Armament: 2× 7.7 mm machine guns, Bombs: 450 kg 

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