lauantai 17. marraskuuta 2018


Þorsteinn Elton Jónsson, DFM (known in English as Thorsteinn "Tony" Jonsson; 19 October 1921 – 30 December 2001) was an Icelandic fighter pilot and flying ace of the Second World War. He was the only pilot from Iceland to serve with Royal Air Force in the Second World War, and went on to a significant career in civil aviation.

                        Kuvahaun tulos haulle THORSTEINN ”TONY” JONSSON

Jonsson was born on 19 October 1921 to Snæbjörn Jónsson (1887–1978) and Annie Florence Westcott Jónsson (1893–1936)

                        Kuvan mahdollinen sisältö: 2 henkilöä, hymyileviä ihmisiä
                                  In Tony, Spitfire's cab. Mk V?

Although his mother was English and Jonsson aspired to join the Royal Air Force (RAF) as a child, he was told by the British legation in Iceland that he was ineligible on account of his nationality. However, he took passage to England by trawler and enlisted at Padgate in 1940. As a sergeant pilot, Jonsson flew hurricanes with No. 17 Squadron at Elgin; he then served in No. 111 Squadron, flying Spitfires first at North Weald and later in North Africa in connection with Operation Torch, during which Jonsson was awarded the Distinguished Flying Medal. 

He was commissioned as a pilot officer on 13 January 1943. On a second tour of duty with No. 65 Squadron, he flew Mustangs over Normandy. Jonsson was promoted flight lieutenant on 13 January 1945, and was discharged from the RAF on 16 April 1947.
                      Kuvan mahdollinen sisältö: lentokone ja ulkoilma
The Royal Air Force 111. Spitfire Mk IX at the Comiso field in Sicily in summer 1943

Jonsson is credited officially with having shot down five enemy planes (though claims have been made for eight), making him Iceland's only flying ace of the Second World War. He published a wartime memoir called Dancing in the Skies in 1994.
                     Kuvahaun tulos haulle THORSTEINN ”TONY” JONSSON
After the war, Jonsson flew Douglas DC-3s on some of Iceland's very first domestic flights, applying his skills to Iceland's difficult weather conditions and nascent infrastructure, before flying international routes for both Icelandair and Loftleiðir. Seeking more adventurous work, Jonsson moved to Kinshasha (then Leopoldville) in the Belgian Congo from 1956 to 1960, flying for Sabena and working, inter alia, as Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba's personal pilot.

After a period flying ice patrols over the east Greenland coast, Jonsson delivered hundreds of tonnes of relief shipments for Nordchurchaid from São Tome to Uli in Biafra in the Nigerian Civil War as part of the Biafran airlift. Jonsson flew 413 of his missions at night, landing on a road lit by rudimentary lighting, switched on only shortly before landing.

Towards the end of his career Jonsson flew jumbo jets for Cargolux. On retirement after 47 years as a pilot, Jonsson had logged 36,000 hours. He charted his postwar career in Icelandic civil aviation in Lucky, no 13: The Eventful Life of a Pilot.

Jonsson was married three times: to an English wife Marianne from 1946 to 1952; from 1952 to 1965] or 1967 to Margrét Þorbjörg Thors, one of his Dakota stewardesses and daughter to Ólafur Thors, four times Iceland's Prime Minister; and to Katrín Þorðardóttir from 1969 to her death in 1994. 

In retirement, Jonsson focused on devoting time to his wife, to fishing, watercolour painting, and writing. He was survived by six of his seven children.

torstai 1. marraskuuta 2018

Erik Lyly

Erik Edward Lyly (August 5, 1914, Loimaa – February 5, 1990, Haparanda, Sweden) was a Finnish fighter pilot and ace in the Continuation War. 

He flew in the LeLv 24 and LeLv 34 (HLeLv 34), the most successful fighter squadrons of the Finnish Air Force, often flying as a wingman for the most proficient Finnish ace Air Sergeant Master Ilmari Juutilainen. He achieved a total of 8 air victories during the wars. His highest rank during the war was Sergeant Master.

Erik Lyly was born in Ypäjä, Loimaa in Finland 1914. He completed his national service as a flight engineer at Lentosotakoulu (Air Force Aviation Academy) between 1931 and 1932. His youth was marked by the depression of the 1930s.

He, among other things, worked in the South American Line on a steamboat (1933–34). He moved then to the Petsamo region and tried his luck in many different professions. Short session as engineer on a fishing boat was followed by own taxi company at Liinahamari (1936–37). Next he took up the task assemble and build a mini-locomotive sent from England by Mond Nickel Ltd. (1937–38, Railway Engineer, Petsamon Nikkeli Oy). 
Ylik Eerik Lyly 1942.jpgRadiocall "Buck"

Erik Lyly was awarded the following honors:
4. class Cross of Liberty with leaves and swords
4. class Cross of Liberty with leaves
1. class Medal of Liberty
2. class Medal of Liberty
Memorial Medal of the Winter War
Memorial Medal of the Continuation War
Memorial Medal of the Air Force
Memorial Cross of Home Guard
Memorial Cross of Lapland Units
                       State aircraft Factory, summer 1941
                        State Aircraft Factory, summer 1941 (VL = Valmet)

Upon completion of the railway and locomotive to the Pummanki harbour he started as Service Manager for Pohjolan Liikenne Oy (state owned bus company 1938-39). While living in Petsamo, he met Sisko Seppi (POB Kauhajoki 1920) whom he married 1939, just on the eve of the Winter War. He studied at the Tampere Technical School (1939–43) at the Industrial School Engineering Department, from where he graduated as a technician in 1943 due wars fragmenting the studies.

             Erik Lyly in pilot training with a VL Pyry (snowfall) trainer, summer 1941

The Winter War (Russo-Finnish War 30.11.1939-13.3.1940)
The Defense Forces performed the so-called YH, Additional Exercise (Mobilisation) in Oct 1939 and Erik Lyly was called to rehearsal exercises to a Frontier Guard unit (4./Lapin Rajavartiosto). This time performing as a military driver for car, ambulance and a motorcycle. On November 30, 1939, however, he was assigned to the Detachment Pennanen (OsP) and its Machine Gun Group leader. 

MG groups were subjected to infantry companies and the struggle in a ruthless freezing cold with poorly organized logistics was a delusional delaying battle, reaching from the border to the Nautsijoki line, where the enemy finally was stopped and the war turned to a stale-mate until the 13.3.40 peace agreement.
                      3/24.Squadron at Suulajärvi AFB, summer 1942, Sgt. E Lyly 1st from right
3/24.Squadron at Suulajärvi AFB, summer 1942, Sgt. E Lyly 1st from right

Truce (14.3.1940 – 25.6.1941)
Even before the Winter War Peace Agreement, Erik Lyly was commissioned to the Reserve NCO Pilot Course at the Kauhava Lentosotakoulu (aviation academy). He received a pilot training at AOK 10 between 9.5. - 11.7.1940. for several types i.e. SM, VI, SÄ, SZ and TU-types. After completing the course, he served as Inspector of the State Aircraft Factory from August 1940 to March 1941 in Tampere.

                          Brewster B-239, FinAF, 1/24.LeLv, 1942

Continuation War (25.6.1941 – 3.9.1944)
With the beginning of the Continuation War additional training followed with Pyry-trainer. After training he was commenced to the Supplementary Flight Squadrons (TLeLv 25 and 35; TLeLv = Supplementary Squadron).

Actual combat action, Erik Lyly did not arrive until January 1942 after being ordered to 24.Squadron and more precisely for 3rd wing (3./24 LeLv). From January 1942 he flew with the Brewster B-239 fighter Finland had bought From US during the winter War, but receiving only after the War in spring 1940. He mostly flew with the BW-374, which he shot down the two(2) enemy aircraft. He often flew as a wingman for Flight Master Sergeant I.E. Juutilainen (highest scoring FinAF ace with 94 victories).
                                 Sgt. Erik Lyly with his Bf 109 G2 aircraft at Utti AFB, April 1943
             SSgt. E Lyly on top of his Me Bf 109G2, spring 1943, Utti AFB

In March 1943, he was transferred to the newly formed 34.Squadron (1./34.HLeLv), which was equipped with newly bought Messerschmitt Bf 109 G2 fighters. Squadron was equipped with updated G6-type on spring 1944. With them he achieved 6 air victories. In total, he completed 411 combat flights reaching to 8 confirmed (+9.5 unconfirmed) air victories. 
                      SSgt. Erik Lyly with his Bf 109 G2 aircraft at Utti AFB, summer 1943
         SSgt. Erik Lyly with his Bf 109 G2 aircraft at Utti AFB, summer 1943

Erik Lyly never wounded, never needed to jump with a parachute during the war. The worst incident was an engine failure with DB 605 on 10.9.1943 that forced him to make a belly-landing for “AFB Jäppilä” (MT-207).     
                      Kuvahaun tulos haulle Erik Lyly

After the war, Lyly continued to work as a Service Manager for Pohjolan Liikenne Oy (bus depot), now in Ivalo, after Petsamo was lost to the Soviet hands. Two children were born Hannu (-47) and Hannele (-48). In 1949 he moved to Rovaniemi and set up an aviation company Lentokuljetus Oy together with his war mechanics. The company acquired one Karhumäki Karhu 48B single engine plane,[10] manufactured only in two (2) examples (OH-VKK and VKL). The company owned plane was OH-VKK and it was the first individual in the series. 
              Karhumäki Karhu 48B of Lentokuljetus Oy with floats,1950

The company operated throughout Finland, but mainly in the Lapland area, carrying out both passenger and freight. When the plane was rented in February 1950, it went over the nose, when taking off from the river and was badly damaged. Two more children were born in Rovaniemi days, Erkki (-57 and Ilkka -61). Erik Lyly continued as a store manager for Aineen Autoliike Oy (car dealer) in Rovaniemi. Later on he founded a new company Polar Auto Oy / AutoRova Oy (car dealer) as a shareholder and managing director of his own car store. 

Company had a Sisu, Vanaja, Land-Rover, Triumph and Renault brands in Northern Finland. He also drove ice racing with a Renault-Gordini car.

      Fuelling up PZL 101 Gawron of Metsälento Oy for forest dusting, 1966

He returned to aviation again in 1968 when he started as a pilot for Metsälento Oy (agricultural dusting). The company operated in Lapland with a PZL 101 Gawron type (OH-GAC). The pilot's career continued with Tunturilento Oy as a pilot from 1968 and he moved to the company's headquarters in Haaparanta, Sweden. The company operated in Lapland carrying out passenger and freight operations with several aircraft types. Among others Cessna 185 floats and Cessna 310 types (OH-CNI, OH-CBC). He maintained a VFR / IFR, multi-engine and float plane ratings. He retired from this task 1975.
He liked recreational aviation as well, as he had done all his life in Rovaniemi with Lapin Lentäjät R.y (Association of Lapland Pilots) with Piper PA-28 and Cessna 152 types. Erik Lyly died at his home peacefully in Haparanda, Sweden at the age of 75 years. He is buried at the Haaparanta (Haparanda, Sweden) church cemetery.

maanantai 29. lokakuuta 2018

Blohm & Voss BV 155

The Blohm & Voss BV 155 was a German high-altitude interceptor aircraft intended to be used by the Luftwaffe against raids by USAAF Boeing B-29 Superfortresses. 
Work started on the design as the Messerschmitt Me 155 in 1942, but the project went through a protracted development period and change of ownership, and prototypes were still under test and development when World War II ended.

Performance estimates of the American B-29 Superfortress reached German command in early 1942. The bomber would cruise at an altitude at which no current German plane could operate effectively. To intercept it, the Luftwaffe would urgently need new aircraft. Work on such a high altitude fighter was begun by Messerschmitt, but in 1943 the project was passed to Blohm & Voss. The result would be the Bv155 prototype that made its first test flight in September 1944.
                 Boxart Blohm und Voss 155 V1 7202 ART model
Me 155
The story of the BV 155 began at Messerschmitt in the spring of 1942. A requirement had arisen for a carrier-based single-seat fighter to be based aboard the aircraft carrier Graf Zeppelin, then under construction. In response, Messerschmitt proposed the Me 155. In the interest of economy and simplicity, it was to use as many Messerschmitt Bf 109 components as possible, being basically a navalized version of the earlier Messerschmitt fighter.

The Me 155 was to be powered by a DB 605A-1 liquid-cooled engine of 1,475 PS (1,455 hp, 1,085 kW). The fuselage was more or less that of the standard Bf 109G, but with an entirely new wing. The undercarriage retracted inwards into wing wells, providing the wider track required for safe carrier landings. Standard naval equipment such as folding wings, catapult spools, and arrester gear were to be fitted. Proposed armament was an engine mounted 20 mm MG 151 cannon and two 20 mm MG 151 cannons and two 13 mm MG 131 machine guns in wings. It had an estimated maximum speed of 649 km/h.

Detail design of the Me 155 was complete by Sept 1942. However, the numerous delays in the Graf Zeppelin seemed to indicate that the completion of the carrier would be at least two years away. Messerschmitt was told to shelve the Me 155 project for the indefinite future. Work on the Graf Zeppelin carrier was eventually abandoned.

Me 155A
In order that all of that work on the Me 155 project not go entirely to waste, Messerschmitt adapted its design in November 1942 to match a Luftwaffe requirement for a fast single seat bomber. A single 1,000 kg SC1000 bomb was to be carried. All of the carrier equipment and most of the armament was removed from the aircraft. Additional fuel tanks were provided and an elongated, non-retractable tailwheel was added to provide ground clearance for the large bomb. The proposal was designated Me 155A.

Me 155B
By the end of 1942, the increasing number of USAAF bombing raids and intelligence coming in about the new American B-29 bomber led the Luftwaffe to envisage a pressing need for an effective high-altitude interceptor. Messerschmitt adapted the Me 155 design again to meet this requirement, merging the design with an in-house study originally designated Me 409, then later Bf 109ST; the new aircraft received the designation Me 155B. The engine was to be the DB 628, which was basically a DB 605A with a two-stage mechanical supercharger with an induction cooler. A pressurized cabin was to be provided. It was estimated that a service ceiling of 14,097 m, could be attained.

A converted Bf 109G adapted to take the DB 628 engine flew in May 1942 and attained an altitude of 15,500 m. However, the Technische Amt concluded that a DB 603A engine with an exhaust-driven turbosupercharger was more promising. The DB 603A provided 1,201 kW (1,610 hp) for takeoff and 1,081 kW (1,450 hp) at 15,000 m. This engine change required that the fuselage be elongated in order to house the turbosupercharger aft of the pressure cabin. Exhaust gases were carried to the turbosupercharger via external ducts. Air was drawn in through via a ventral trough aft of the wing. Standard Bf 109G wings were to be fitted outboard of a new, long-span, untapered wing center section. Other parts were scavenged from existing Messerschmitt designs – the vertical tail was from the Me 209, and the horizontal tail and the undercarriage were taken from the Bf 109G.

In August 1943, the RLM realised that Messerschmitt was over-committed and transferred the design work to Blohm & Voss. The design team there came to the conclusion that the existing Messerschmitt design had too many weaknesses and a complete redesign would be necessary.

In September 1943, an order for five prototypes was placed. Blohm & Voss accepted the order only on condition they had complete design freedom and were not bound by Messerschmitt's work to date. The redesign was named the BV 155. B&V gave it a new laminar flow wing and tail unit, landing gear from the Ju 87 and many other parts of the plane. Further wind tunnel testing showed that there was a serious problem with the overwing radiators, at high angles of attack the wing "blanked" them from the airflow and cooling would suffer. Work moved to a revised B model.
                    Boxart Blohm & Voss BV 155 V-1 SH72340 Special Hobby

Number built 3
Length: 12 m 
Crew: 1

Wingspan: 20.5 m
Height: 3 m
Wing area: 39 m2
Empty weight: 4,870 kg
Gross weight: 5,520 kg Proposal A
5,125 kg Proposal B
5,100 kg Proposal C
5,440 kg  Proposal D
Max takeoff weight: 6,020 kg
Fuel capacity: 1,200 l 
Powerplant: 1 × Daimler-Benz DB 603A inverted V-12 liquid-cooled piston engine with TKL 15 turbo-charger, 1,200 kW (1,600 hp) for take-off
1,200 kW at 10,000 m
1,081 kW at 15,000 m 
Propellers: 4-bladed constant speed paddle bladed propeller

Maximum speed: 420 km/h at sea level
520 km/h at 6,000 m 
600 km/h at 10,000 m 
650 km/h at 12,000 m 
690 km/h at 16,000 m 
Range: 460 km at maximum continuous power with 595 l of fuel at sea level
560 km  with 595 l of fuel at 10,000 m 
590 km with 595 l of fuel at 16,000 m
1,080 km with 1,200 l  of fuel at sea level
1,350 km with 1,200 l  of fuel at 10,000 m 
1,440 km with 1,200 l of fuel at 16,000 m 
Service ceiling: 16,950 m service ceiling
maximum ceiling 17,100 m
Rate of climb: 11.5 m/s initial
3.92 m/s at 16,000 m
Time to altitude: 16,000 m in 29 minutes

Proposal A
1 × 30 mm MK 108 cannon as an engine mounted Motorkanone firing through the propeller shaft
2 × 20 mm MG 151/20 cannon
Proposal B
1 × 30 mm MK 103 cannon as an engine mounted Motorkanone firing through the propeller shaft with 60 rounds
2 × 15 mm MG 151 cannon with 200 rpg
Proposal C
3 × 30 mm MK 108 cannon with 60 rpg.
Proposal D
3 × 30 mm MK 103 cannon with 60 rpg (two mounted in under-wing fairings).

                      Kuvahaun tulos haulle BV 155
The first prototype, BV 155 V1, took off for its maiden flight on September 1, 1944. Tests with the V1 showed that the outboard radiators provided inadequate cooling, especially at high angle of attack. The intakes on the next prototype were enlarged and underslung beneath the wing rather than placed over it. However, the enlarged radiators caused a CoG problem, which required moving the pressurized cockpit forward. The Blohm & Voss team took this opportunity to replace the original Bf 109G canopy with an aft-sliding all-round vision canopy, and the rear fuselage decking was cut down. This in turn required that a larger rudder be fitted. The ventral radiator bath was also enlarged.

With these changes, the BV 155 V2 flew on February 8, 1945. Blohm & Voss was still not satisfied with the design, and before the V2 began its flight trials they proposed that the engine be switched to the DB 603U having the larger mechanically driven supercharger of the DB 603E. 

The DB 603U promised a power of 1,238 kW (1,660 hp) for takeoff and 1,066 kW (1,430 hp) at 14,935 m. The ventral turbosupercharger was retained. The Technische Amt decided to accept this proposal, and abandoned all work on the BV 155B in favor of the revised design, which was designated BV 155C.

The BV 155 V2 was damaged beyond repair during a bad landing. It was to be replaced in the test program by the BV 155 V3. The BV 155 V3 differed from the V2 in having the DB 603U intended for the BV 155C. However, the engine cowling and turbosupercharger were unchanged.
                 Aiheeseen liittyvä kuva
Various armament schemes for the BV 155B were proposed. One proposal had an engine-mounted (or Motorkanone) 30 mm MK 108 cannon and two 20 mm MG 151/20 cannons. Another had a Motorkanone-mount 30 mm MK 103 cannon and two wing-mounted 20 mm MG 151 cannons. Estimated maximum speed was 650 km/h at 12,000 m and 690 km/h at 16,000 m. Service ceiling was to be 16,950 m. Empty weight was 4,869 kg. Normal loaded weight ranged from 5,126-5,488 kg, depending on the armament provided.

According to Pegasus Models Kit No. 5002 information sheet, V1 and V2 were both provided to the RAF after the war. V1 was flight tested until it was written off. The fate of V2 is not known. V3 is in storage at the US Air And Space Museum's storage facility.

BV 155C Project
In parallel with the prototype development, Blohm & Voss had been working on additional changes under Project 205. P.205 replaced the underwing radiators with an annular one around the front of the engine, a design feature commonly found on a number of German designs. With the wings now free of clutter, they were considerably simpler and were reduced in span. This also had the side effect of reducing the track, which would later prove to be a welcome change. 

The new design would be simpler, lighter and faster, and plans were made to make it the standard version of the aircraft. During the October re-evaluation, it was agreed that V1 through V3 would be completed as B models, while a new series of five would be completed to the new standard as the BV 155C.

The BV 155C was to be significantly different in appearance from the BV 155B. The clumsy wing-mounted radiators of the BV 155B were eliminated, and the main landing gear leg attachment points were moved inboard to retract inwards. Cooling was provided by an annular frontal radiator as in the Focke-Wulf Ta 152. Large circular intakes were attached to the fuselage sides above the wing roots.